Yes. Power over ethernet (PoE) will only power the powered device (PD) so long as there is enough voltage to power the PD at the end of the cable run.
The maximum distance you can power a device will vary depending on the PD and its voltage required, as well as the voltage provided by the power supply, and the quality of the cable. Cat6 cable is recommended for long PoE runs.
An OM series (24V) AP can be powered over a distance up to about 50 meters. Warning: Do not use a higher voltage than 24V for PD’s requiring 24V PoE or you will destroy the PD!
802.3af and 802.3at PoE standards have a distance limit of 100 meters. This is also the limit for the (100/1000 Mb/s) data transmission for Ethernet cables.
However there are PoE switches that can do PoE (and data) over an “extended range”. These can work up to 250 meters, but at a data rate of 10 Mb/s. Your “mileage” may vary, depending on required power and cabling quality. 10 Mb/s will be fine for IP phones and low resolution or low frame rate IP cameras.